darya1gif.gif (3186 bytes)
5abi.com

gyan-vigyan-tit2.gif (5594 bytes)

atom_animation1.gif (33259 bytes)

070403_puncomp_100.jpg (5796 bytes)pSjfbI Bff df kSipAUtrIkrn
zf[ gurpRIq isSG lihl
cI koafrzInytr,
rIsors sYNtr POr afeI[aYl[tI[aYWs-pSjfbI,
Qfpr ieSstIicAUt aOP
ieSjnIairSg aYNz qknflojI, pitaflf
zf[ hrivSdr isSG BWtI
rIzr, smfj ivigafn,
pSjfbI XUnIvristI,  pitaflf

Bff mnuWKI siBafcfr df buinafdI sroq hY. mnuWKI siBaqf df ivkfs Bff dy ivkfs nfl atWut rUp ivc juiVaf hoieaf hY. mnuWKI ieiqhfs aqy mfnvivigafn dy KyqrF ivc ieh iek srvpRvfinq sWc hY ik ilpI df ivkfs afpxy afp ivc iek Xug pltfAU Gtnf sI. mnWuKI ieiqhfs dy vWK vWK pVfa Aus vloN kIqy gey qknIkI ivkfs dy afDfr qy imxy jFdy hn. ilpI df ivkfs vI ies qknIkI ivkfs ivc aihm pVfa sI ijsny Bff aqy qknflojI dy aSqr sbSDF ƒ AuGfiVaf. Aus smyN qoN hI Bff aqy qknflojI df ivkfs iek dUsry qy inrBr krdy cly af rhy hn. ilpI qoN bfad Cfpyfny, tfeIp mIn, rIkfrizSg afid aijhy qknflojIkl pVfa hn ijnHF ny Bff dy ivkfs ivc bhuq hI mhWqvpUrn ihWsf pfieaf hY. BffeI ieiqhfs ies gWl dI gvfhI idSdf hY ik ijnHF BffvF ny smyN isr qknflojI ƒ nhIN apxfieaf Auh jF qF ivkfs ivc ipCy rih geIaF jF Aukf hI Kqm ho geIaF.

schools1.jpg (13290 bytes)kSipAUtr dI eIjfd qknflojI Kyqr ivc aijhf ienklfb hY ik ijsdI hor koeI imsfl mnuWKI ieiqhfs ivc nhIN imldI. mnuWKI iSdgI aqy igafn dy vWK vWK KyqrF ƒ kSipAUtr ny ies kdr pRBfivq kIqf aqy bdl idWqf hY, ijsdI kuJ smF pihlF klpnf vI nhIN sI kIqI jf skdI.

ieh kudrqI hY ik aijhI vWzI qknflojIkl qbdIlI mnWuKI Bff dy Kyqr ƒ vI pRBfivq kry. kSipAUtr aqy Bff dy afpsI sSbSDF df smWucf jfief lYxf qF afpxy afp ivc hI bhuq ivfl Kyqr hY ijsdf ikr mOjUdf pRsSg aqy prcy dy ivqoNN bfhrI gWl hY. pr ieQy kuJ nukqy spt krny lfmI hn.

1 kSipAUtr aqy fskr ieStrnYWt dy mnuWKI iSdgI df aSg bx jfx kfrn, aSgryI Bff iek mUl Bff bx geI hY. iesdf BffeI sfmrfj hor ivfl ho igaf hY.

2 ivvIkrn (Globalization) ivc BffeI sfmrfj df bhuq aihm rol hY. afDuink sScfr dIaF loVF ƒ iDafn ivc rWKdy hoey sfry ivv leI ieko iek kfrgr Bff dI loV mihsUs hox lWg peI hY aqy ies ivy ivc Koj vI bVy or or nfl ho rhI hY.

3 ies hflfq ivc CotIaF aqy ielfkfeI BffvF df BivK nf isr DSudlf ho irhf hY sgoN mUl rUp ivc AuhnF dI hoNd ƒ hI Kqrf KVHf ho igaf hY.

4 ies qrHF jfpdf hY ik isr AuhI BffvF jo jldI qoN jldI ajokI qknflojI apxf ky aWj dy mfny dIaF sScfrk loVF pUrf krn dy smrWQ ho jfxgIaF, afpxI hoNd kfiem rWK skxgIaF qy ivkfs kr skxgIaF.

sanchar1.jpg (12545 bytes)ies pRsSg ivc pSjfbI Bff aqy iesdy kSipAUtrIkrn dy msly sbSDI gWl kridaF, pSjfbI Bff dy ivkfs dI ipTBUmI qy ingfh mfrnI rUrI hY. pSjfb df ieiqhfs hfrF sflF purfxf hY iesdI bolI vI ieSnIN hI purfxI hY. purfxI vYidk Bff aqy pRfikRq Bff, Bff dy aijhy muZly rUp hn ijnHF ivcoN bfad dIaF BfrqI BffvF pYdf hoeIaF. pSjfbI Bff dIaF jVHF vI iehnF purfqn BffvF nfl hI juVIaF hoeIaF hn. pr mOjUdf pSjfbI Bff df ieiqhfs nfQ jogIaF, sUI sSqF aqy isWK gurUaF dy nfl hI juiVaf hoieaf hY. ies ilhf nfl ieh GWty GWt hfr ku sfl purfxI Bff hY. ikAuNik pSjfbI Bff dI iksmq pSjfb dy ieiqhfs nfl hI juVI hoeI hY ies krky ies Bff df ieiqhfs vI duKFq BrpUr hY.

pSjfbI Bff kdy vI srkfrI Bff nhIN rhI ieQoN qk ik mhfrfjf rxjIq isSG dy smyN ivc vI frsI hI srkfrI Bff dy qOr qy pRclq sI. pSjfbI afm lokF dI Bff hox krky afm lokF dIaF loVF aqy anuBvF anusfr ivksq huSdI rhI. iesƒ kdy vI isafsI, afriQk jF qknIkI hlikaF ivc srpRsqI aqy muiqafrI nhIN imlI. ies krky bfvjUd bhuq ipafrI aqy smrWQ Bff hox dy, ieh qknIkI aqy qknflojIkl pWK qoN GWt ivksq jF axivksq hI rhI. ies qknflojIkl ipCVypn kfrn ieh pyNzU, anpVH aqy isDy-sfdy lokF dI Bff igxI jFdI rhI. aWj vI pSjfbI bolx vfilaF ivc ikqy nf ikqy kmqrI df aihsfs Cuipaf nr afAuNdf hY. Kfs krky srkfrI, pRfsink, akfdimk aqy qknIkI hlikaF ivc iesƒ smrWQ Bff nhIN smiJaf jFdf.

pSjfbI lokF df vK-vK Dfrimk irikaF ivc vSzy jfxf aqy Bff df mhbIkrn aqy isafsIkrn ho jfxf vI pSjfbI Bff dy duKFq df mUSh boldf sbUq hY. muslmfnF df AurdU, ihSdUaF df ihSdI aqy isWKF df pSjfbI nfl juV jfxf pSjfbI Bff leI bhuq hI mSdBfgf sfbq hoieaf hY. pSjfbI Bff dI vrqoN leI iehnF Dfrimk irikaF df vWKo vWKrIaF ilpIaF, imsfl dy qOr qy muslmfnF vWloN prIan ilpI, ihSdUaF vWloN dyvnfgrI ilpI aqy isWKF vWloN gurmuKI ilpI vrqxf vI pSjfbI Bff leI bVf Gfqk sfibq hoieaf hY.

pSjfb dy btvfry (1947) nfl pSjfbI BffeI BfeIcfrf pihlF do ihWisaF ivc vSizaf igaf iPr pSjfbI sUby dy aSdoln dOrfn iqSn ihWisaF ivc vSizaf igaf. iesdf nuksfn pSjfbI Bff aqy iesdy ivkfs ƒ hoxf kudrqI sI. pSjfbIaF df iek vWzf ihWsf ieDrly aqy AuDrly dovyN pSjfbF ivcoN AWuT ky pRdyF ivc jf vWisaf. ieh lok vI afpxy siBafcfr qy BffeI ivrsy nfloN tWut gey, ijs sdkf iehnF aSdr iek siBafcfr dy AudryvyN dI Bfvnf jfg peI. mOjUdf ivkfs dI idf ihrIkrn aqy pWCmIkrn vWl hox krky aqy ihrF ivc ividaf df psfr, tI[vI[ aqy ieStrnYWt dI vrqoN vWDx krky afAux vflIaF pIVHIaF ivc aSgryI aqy ihSdI dI vrqoN df ruJfn vD irhf hY. iehnF Auprokq qWQF qy iDafn mfiraF sSsfr dI 14vIN Bff hox aqy lgBg 6 kroV lokF dI bolI hox dy bfvjUd pSjfbI df BivK qknflojIkl ivkfs dI axhoNd kfrn aSDkfrmeI nr afAuNdf hY.

pSjfbI irsors sYNtr dI sQfpnf

ikAuNik qknflojIkl ivkfs dI cuxOqI isr pSjfbI leI hI nhIN sgoN sfrIaF BfrqI BffvF leI sFJI hY. ies krky kSimAUnIkyn aqy ienPormyn qknflojI minstrI ny 2000 ivc BfrqI BffvF dy kSimpAUtrIkrn dI bhuq hI mhWqvpUrn Xojnf AulIkI, ijs aDIn pSjfbI Bff dy kSipAUtrIkn df ijSmF Qfpr ieSstIicAUt afP ieSjnIairSg aqy qknflojI ƒ sONipaf igaf. ies sSsQf ivKy kimAUnIkyn aqy ienPormyn qknflojI minstrI vWloN rIsors sYNtr Pfr tYknIkl izvYlpmYNt afP pSjfbI sQfpq kIqf igaf ijsdI iSmyvfrI mOjUdf lyKk ƒ sONpI geI aqy sih lyKk ny muZlI styj qy slfhkfr vWloN syvf inBfeI. do sflF dy Coty ijhy arsy dOrfn bhuq sfrIaF muklF dy bfvjUd ieh rIsors sYNtr ny hyT ilKy KyqrF ivc pSjfbI Bff df kSipAUtrIkrn krn ivc sPlqf hfsl kIqI hY. ieQy ieh vrxnXog hY ik ies sYNtr dI sQfpnf qoN pihlF pSjfbI Bff dy kSipAUtrIkrn sSbSDI kSm nFh dy brfbr hI sI. isr kuJ prdysF ivc vsdy pSjfbI prymIaF ny pSjfbI tfeIp leI vKo-vKry PoNt iqafr kIqy sn. kuJ ivakqIaF ny vYWb sfeItF iqafr krky iesy pfsy vWl kuJ Xqn kIqy sn.

spYWl cYWkr

spYl cYWkr arQfq bd-joV iksy vI Bff dI buinafdI rUrq hY. shI bd-joV qoN ibnF aksr arQF dy anrQ ho jFdy hn. Bff dy kSipAUtrIkrn nfl ieh kSm bhuq hI sOKf ho igaf hY. aSgryI vrgIaF ivksq aqy kSipAUtrfeIz BffvF ivc bhuq hI ivksq spYWl cYWkr imldy hn. ijs nfl CpfeI aqy sSpfdn df kSm bhuq hI afsfn ho jFdf hY. pSjfbI df spYWl cYWkr iqafr krn qoN pihlF vWzI mukl ieh afeI ik pSjfbI ivc ajy bd-joVF df imafrIkrn (Standardization) hI nhIN hoieaf. byWk bhuq sfry pSjfbI ivdvfn sfrI Aumr pSjfbI Bff dy lyKy lf cWuky hn. hYrfnI dI gWl hY ik ies pfsy iafdf iDafn nhIN idWqf igaf. pSjfbI dy bhuq sfry bd-joV ajy vI vWK-vWK qrIikaF nfl ilKy jFdy hn. ieQoN qk ik bd-ko iqafr krdy smyN vI ies pfsy iDafn nhIN idWqf igaf, iesy krky vWK vWK bd-koF ivc vWKo-vWKry bd-joV imldy hn. imsfl qy qOr qy aksr vrqoN ivc afAux vfly bd 'ivc` ƒ hI do qrIikaF nfl (:ivc/ivWc:) iliKaf jFdf hY.

ies smWisaf ƒ hWl krn leI ijWQy ikqy iksy bd dy iek qoN vWD bd-joV rUp pRclq hn Ausdy sfry rUpF ƒ hI fml kr ilaf igaf hY. ies spYWl cYWkr ƒ iqafr krn leI s[hrkIrq isSG dy bd-joV ko ƒ afDfr bxfky aqy pSjfbI XUnIvristI dy pSjfbI-aSgryI bd-ko aqy Bff ivBfg vWloN iqafr bd-ko dI vrqoN krdy hoey 1[5 lWK bdF qy afDfirq spYWl cYWkr iqafr kIqf igaf hY jo ik vrqoN leI iqafr hY.

PONt qbdIlI

pSjfbI Bff dy chyiqaF aqy ilKfrIaF Kfs krky kSipAUtr Aupr hWQ amfAux vfilaF ny bhuq sfry pSjfbI PONt iqafr kr ley hn. ieh sfry PONt iqafr krn sdkf iehnF POtF dI GVmWs ijhI mWc geI hY. pr iehnF POtF dI vjfh kfrn iek nvIN smWisaf ieh bx geI hY ik vWK-vWK mInF Aupr vWK-vWK PONt hox krky pSjfbI tfeIp krn vfilaF leI muklF pYdf ho geIaF hn. ikAuNik ieh PONt aijhy qrIky (glyph codes) nfl kSipAUtr mYmrI ivc stor kIqy jFdy hn ijs kfrn iek dUjy ivc qbdIl nhIN ho skdy. ies kfrn pSjfbI Bff qy afDfirq kSipAUtr vrqoN ivc bhuq aVcnF af rhIaF hn aqy nf hI iesƒ ieStrnYWt leI vriqaf jf skdf hY. iehnF muklF ƒ hWl krn leI rIsors-sYNtr vWloN iek PONt-knvrtr iqafr kIqf igaf hY. ieh PONt-knvrtr 60 vWKo-vWKiraF pSjfbI PONtF ƒ iek dUsry ivc bdl skdf hY. iehnF sfry PONtF ivcoN kuJku pRisWD PONt ieh hn: afnSdrpur sfihb, amirq ilpI, jfsmIn aqy sqluj. ies PONt-knvrtr rfhIN hux koeI vI iek PONt ivc tfeIp krky loV anusfr smWucI iebfrq ƒ hor PONt ivc bdl skdf hY.

sOritSg (qrqIbbWD krnf)

qrqIbbWD krnf aqy sUcIbWD krnf, jfxkfrI jF zftf mYnyjmYNt dIaF buinafdI loVF hn. ieh Koj, aiDafpn aqy hor akfdimk aqy pRbSDkI kSmF leI bhuq hI mhWqvpUrn qrIky hn. fbidk qrqIb qoN bgYr iksy Bff dy bd-ko dI klpnf vI nhIN kIqI jf skdI. bdiksmqI nfl pSjfbI Bff dI fbidk qrqIb df koeI frmUlf vI ajy qk iqafr nhIN kIqf igaf. BfeI kfnH isSG nfBf dy bd-ko qoN lY ky pSjfbI XUnIvristI dy bd-ko qWk, sfry bd-ko afpo-afpxy qrIky nfl qrqIb dy ky iqafr kIqy gey hn. iehnF ivc kfPI hWd qWk lyKkF jF sSpfdkF vloN mnmrI kIqI geI hY. pr kSipAUtr duafrf qrqIbbWD krn leI koeI ivigafink qrIkf hI apxfieaf jf skdf hY. ies Kyqr ivc kSm kr cWuky jF kSm kr rhy ivdvfnF nfl sSprk krn qy pqf cWilaf ik AuhnF ivcoN bhuq sfry ies smWisaf pRqI cyqSn hI nhIN hn. aSgryI vrgIaF BffvF ijnHF dIaF lgF-mfqrfvF aWKr afDfirq hn aijhI smWisaf pYdf nhIN krdIaF. pr pSjfbI bfkI BfrqI BffvF vFg ies mfmly ivc kfI guSJldfr hY. ies krky kSipAUtr leI fbidk qrqIb df muZoN-suZoN iek nvF frmUlf iqafr kIqf igaf hY. ijs ivc aWKrF dI qrqIb pihlF kIqI geI hY. Aus qoN bfad lgF-mfqrfvF dI qrqIb dUjy nSbr qy iqafr kIqI geI hY. bhuq sfry Bff ivigafnIaF dI slfh nfl aqy bfkI BffvF dy kSipAUtr mfihrF dI rfie nfl ieh mukl hWl kr leI geI hY. hux rIsors sYNtr vWloN pSjfbI Bff dI iek aijhI qrqIb pRxfI iqafr kr leI geI hY jo smWucIaF pSjfbI PoNtF Aupr lfgU huSdI hY.

ielYktrOink bd-ko aqy qknIkI bdfvlI ko

pSjfbI Bff dy qknIkI pWKoN axivksq jF GWt ivksq hox kfrn iesdI dqrI vrqoN aqy akfdimk vrqoN ivc bhuq muklF afAuNdIaF hn. bhuq sfry aSgryI jF ihSdI dy brfbr dy bd nf hox kfrn qknIkI aqy akfdimk bdfvlI dI kfI Gft hY. ieh gWl iDafn ivc rWKidaF Bff ivBfg ny keI qknIkI bdfvlI ko iqafr kIqy hn. sYNtr ny iehnF muklF ƒ iDafn ivc rWKidaF keI aSgryI pSjfbI bd-ko aqy qknIkI bdfvlI koF df ielYktrOink rUpFqrx krky ieStrnYWt Aupr ieh muhWeIaf krvf idWqy hn qF ik dunIaf dy iksy kony ivc bYTf koeI vI pSjfbI lyKk jF pfTk iesdI vrqoN kr sky. pSjfbI Bff dI vrqoN krn vfilaF leI bhuq vWzI shUlq sfbq ho irhf hY.

pSjfbI vrz-pRosYsr

kSipAUtr dI sB qoN vWzI dyx vWK-vWK BffvF dy vrz pRosYsr pYdf krnf hY. ieh vrz-pRosYsr kSipAUtr dI vrqoN krn vfilaF leI iek smWucf Bff pRbSD muhWeIaf krvfAuNdy hn. iehnF ivc kI-borz, bd-ko, QYfrs, spYWl-cYWkr, qrqIb pRbSD aqy PoNt qbdIl krn dIaF shUlqF pRdfn krdy hn. iafdf ivksq vrz-pRosYsr gRfmr cYWk aqy pSkcUeyn dIaF shUlqF vI pRdfn krdy hn. pSjfbI lyKkF aqy pfTkF dIaF muklF ƒ iDafn ivc rWKidaF rIsors sYNtr vWloN pSjfbI df pihlf vrz poRsYsr ilKfrI iqafr kIqf igaf hY jo Aupr dWsIaF sfrIaF shUlqF mhWeIaf krvfAuNdf hY aqy pUrn rUp ivc vrqoN Xog hY.

gurmuKI O. C. R. (Optical Character Recognition)

kSipAUtr nfl sSbSDq ieh vWzI shUlq skYnr dI hY. skYnr iksy vI dsqfvy ƒ pVH ky kSipAUtr dI mYNmrI ivc stor kr skdf hY aqy Ausƒ kSipAUtr skrIn Aupr ilaf ky Aus dI sSpfdnf jF rUpFqrx kIqf jf skdf hY. ieQoN qWk ky qsvIrF vYrf ƒ vI aYizt kIqf jf skdf hY. BffvF dy sSbSD ivc iesqrHF dI shUlq pYdf krn leI iek aijhy sfPtvyar dI loV pYNdI hY ijs rfhIN skYnr Aus Bff ƒ pVHn dy Xog ho jFdf hY. ies qknIk ƒ O. C. R. ikhf jFdf hY. pSjfbI Bff df koeI O. C. R. ajy qWk ivksq nhIN kIqf igaf sI. bhuq Koj aqy sq imhnq qoN bfad rIsors sYNtr ny pSjfbI df O. C. R. iqafr krn ivc kfmXfbI hfsl kIqI hY. ieh O. C. R. ieSnF kqIflI hY ik ivSgy tyZy vrikaF ƒ vI pCfx ky isWDy krky kSipAUtr skrIn Aupr idKf skdf hY. ies shUlq rfhIN pSjfbI dsqfvyF aqy ikqfbF vYrf ƒ kSipAUtr ivc aYNtr krn leI tfeIipSg dI rUrq nhIN pvygI. sgoN skYnr duafrf skYn krky dsqfvyF ƒ aYizt kIqf jf skygf. ieh shUlq vI pUrn rUp ivc vrqoN Xog hY aqy bhuq sfry sYNtr nfl sSbSDq adfiraF vWloN iesƒ vriqaf jf irhf hY.

gurmuKI-fhmuKI ilpIaSqr

rIsors sYNtr ny C-DAC dI mdd nfl iek kSipAUtr pRogrfm iqafr kIqf hY. ijs nfl gurmuKI ilpI ivc ilKI iebfrq ƒ fhmuKI arQfq AurdU ilpI ivc qbdIl kIqf jf skdf hY. muZly qjrby dy qOr qy pRisWD khfxIkfr krqfr isSG dWugl dIaF khfxIaF ƒ ies pRogrfm qihq ieStrnYWt Aupr gurmuKI ilpI ivc muhWeIaf kIqf igaf hY. iehnF khfxIaF ƒ fhmuKI ivc vI qbdIl krky piVHaf jf skdf hY. ies ivy ivc ajy hor Koj cl rhI hY. pSjfbI Bff ivc ilpI dI smWisaf ƒ iDafn ivc rWKidaF ieh iek bhuq hI mhWqvpUrn pRogrfm hY.

ieStrnYWt sSbSDI pSjfbI ivc shUlqF

aWj df Xug ieStrnYWt df Xug bxdf jf irhf hY. ijhVIaF BffvF afpxy afpƒ vYWb dI vrqoN Xog nhIN bxf skxgIaF AuhnF df koeI BivWK nhIN hY. ies gWl ƒ iDafn ivc rWKidaF sYNtr ny pSjfbI ƒ vYWb-Xog bxfAux leI bhuq Xqn kIqy hn ijs dy isWty vjoN pSjfbI Bff dy klfskI fhkfr ieStrnYWt Aupr muhWeIaf krvfey gey hn iehnF ivcoN jpujI sfihb, cSzI dI vfr, bWulyH fh dIaF kfIaF, yK rId dy lok, vfirs fh dI hIr, iv dI lUxF, afid ikrXog hn. iehnF rcnfvF ƒ ivy qOr qy ieStrnYWt Bff ivc rUpFqirq krn dy nfl-nfl aOKy bdF dy arQ vI idWqy hn jo ik krsr bd Aupr iljfx nfl afpxy afp pRgt ho jFdy hn. iek src-ieSjn vI iehnF rcnfvF dy nfl muhWeIaf krvfieaf igaf hY ijs duafrf iksy vI bd ƒ iehnF rcnfvF dy pRsSg ivc Koijaf jf skdf hY.

BivKmuKI idfvF

kSipAUtr sfieSs dy Kyqr ivc nvIaF KojF hox nfl rofnf iSdgI ivc kSipAUtr df rol aqy mhWqv bhuq vD igaf hY. kSipAUtr aSgryI kyNdirq jF pWCmI kyNdirq hox dI bjfey sSsfr dy hr iKqy ivc aqy iSdgI dy hr pihlU ivc aihm sfDn bx igaf hY. vWK vWK dyF ivc kSipAUtr dy loklIkrn dI mSg vD geI hY. lokl afbfdI dIaF loVF anusfr kSipAUtr dI vrqoN ivc inq nvIaF qknIkF ivksq ho rhIaF hn.

hr iKqy ivc srkfrI hmfieq nfl aqy ivigafink aqy akfdimk AuWdm nfl kSipAUtr qknOlojI ƒ hor vrqoN Xog bxfieaf jf skdf hY, jykr ies qknflojI dy BivK vWl ingfh mfrI jfvy qF iesdy ivkfs dIaF sSBfvnfvF anSq hn. iesdy ivkfs dI koeI sImf nhIN jy sImf hY qF mnWuKI mn aqy klpnf dI sImf hY. vrqmfn aqy nyV BivK ivc ijs idf ivc bfkI BffvF ivc KojF ho rhIaF hn aqy ijnHF dI pSjfbI Bff dy kSipAUtrIkrn ivc vI aihm BUimkf ho skdI hY. AuhnF ivcoN kuJ ku hyT ilKy anusfr hn:

1 korps ivkfs (Corpora development) bd BSzfr ivkfs:

pSjfbI Bff df smuWcf korps (bd BSzfr) jo ik kSipAUtr duafrf vrqoN leI CIIL mYsUr vWloN jutfieaf igaf hY 30 lWK bdF df hY. ieh buinafdI bd BSzfr, Bff ivigafnIaF, kSipAUtr mfihrF Kfs sfPtvyar df ivkfs krn vfilaF leI bhuq hI lfhyvSd hY. ieh kSipAUtr dI BffeI vrqoN ijsqrF spYWl cYikSg, gRfmr cYikSg O. C R. aqy mIn trFslyn leI bhuq rUrI hY. pSjfbI iek hfrF sfl purfxI aqy BUgoilk qOr qy ivfl iKWiqaF ivc bolI jFdI Bff hY. iesdf bd BSzfr vI bhuq ivfl hoxf kudrqI hY. afAux vfly smyN ivc kSipAUtr dI vrqoN Xog bd BSzfr arQfq korps ƒ GWto GWt 1 kroV bdF qWk ivksq krn dI rUrq hY. ies qoN ielfvf ies korps dy pWDr ƒ hor AuWcf cWukx leI ies ivc idWqy bdF dy bfkI rUpF ƒ Aus nfl tYg kIqf jf skdf hY ijsƒ kSipAUtr dI qknIkI bdfvlI ivc mOr ikhf jFdf hY. ies qoN ielfvf korps ivc idWqy bdF dI vrqoN anusfr vI tYigSg kIqI jf skdI hY. jo ik pSjfbI dy kSipAUtrIkrn ivc bhuq hI mhWqvpUrn hovygI.

2 ieStrnYWt qy pSjfbI dI vrqoN:

sSsfr ivc ieStrnYWt vrqx vfly lokF dI igxqI bhuq qy rqfr nfl vD rhI hY. iSdgI df koeI vI iKqf iesqoN aCUqf nhIN irhf. idnoN idn ieStrnYWt dI vrqoN ivc nvIaF qknIkF dI mSg vI vWD rhI hY. pSjfbI Bff ƒ ieStrnYWt qy vrqxXog bxfAux leI aqy hor qknflojIkl cuxOqIaF df sfhmxf krn dy Xog bxfAux leI hyT ilKy KyqrF vl iDafn dyx dI rUrq hY :

pSjfbI Bff df ieStrnYWt Bff ivc rUpFqrx krn leI qknIkF df ivkfs krnf aqy ieStrnYWt vrqx vfilaF leI sSpfdnf afid dIaF shUlqF pRdfn krnf.

pSjfbI eI-myl srvr ivksq krnF qF ik pSjfbI ivc eI-myl ByjI aqy pRfpq kIqI jf sky.

pSjfbI ivc iSdgI dy vWK-vWK KyqrF nfl sSbSDq ijvyN sYr-spftf, snaqkfrI, ividaf aqy zfktrI shUlqF jF hor shUlqF sSbSDI jfxkfrI pSjfbI ivc pYdf krnf aqy ieStrnYWt qy muhWeIaf krvfAuxf aqy ies sSbSDI imafrI vYWb-sfeItF df inrmfx krnf.

3 mIn trFslyn:

Bfrq iek bhu-BffeI dy hY vWK vWK sUibaF ivc vWK vWK BffvF pRclq hn. ies krky iek Bff qoN dUjI Bff ivc qrjmf krnf afpxy afp ivc hI iek kSm hY. bhuq sfry dsqfvy bhu-BffeI jF do-BffeI huSdy hn ies krky aksr AuhnF dy qrjmy ivc bhuq smWisafvF afAuNdIaF hn. Bff dI vrqoN sSbSDI vI bhuq Jmyly KVyH huSdy rihSdy hn aqy aksr ieh isafsI rSgq lY lYNdy hn. jykr BfrqI BffvF leI mIn trFslyn dI suivDf ivksq kr leI jfvy qF Bff sSbSDI lokF dIaF bhuq sfrIaF muklF ƒ afsfn kIqf jf skdf hY. hyT ilK dsqfvy mIn duafrf trFslyt krny rUrI hn.

srkfrI aqy pRfsink kfiedy kfƒn
pfrlImYNtrI svfl-jvfb
dvfeIaF sSbSDI sUcnfvF aqy jfxkfrI
kfƒnI bdfvlI aqy mhWqvpUrn inafiek PYsly

4 mnuK-mIn aSqrikRaf:

ijAuN ijAuN pSjfbI ivc jfxkfrI df ivkfs ho irhf hY iesƒ kSipAUtr Aupr drj krn leI qknIkF dI rUrq vWDdI jf rhI hY. ijnHF ƒ asIN mnuK-mIn ieStrPys (H U M I S) df nF idSdy hF. ies idf ivc pihlF hI pSjfbI gurmuKI df O. C. R iqafr ho cWuikaf hY pr ies sSbSD ivc hor bhuq sfrIaF qknIkF aqy shUlqF bfkI BffvF ivc AuplWbD hn. ies krky afAux vfl smyN ivc pSjfbI Bff sSbSDI ivy KyqrF ivc Koj krn dI rUrq hY. iehnF ivcoN kuJ ku hyT ilKy anusfr hn.

aOn-lfien aqy aOP-lfien hWQ-ilKq gurmuKI dsqfvyF dI pCfx leI shUlqF muhWeIaf krvfAuxf.

pSjfbI ivc kSipAUtr leI bol-cfl dy pRbSD ivksq krnF ijnHF rfhIN kSipAUtr ivc pSjfbI bolI dI rIkfizSg ho sky. ieh qknIkF pSjfbI pRsfrn, bfnI afdyF aqy hor bol cflF dy pRbSDF leI mhWqvpUrn isWD hoxgIaF.

pSjfbI bol pCfx df pRbSD ivksq krnf ijs rfhIN kSipAUtr bfnI afdyF ƒ smJ ky huSgfrf dy sky.

isWtf

byWk pSjfbI kSipAUtrIkrn dI idf ivc kuJ muZly kdm pWuty gey hn pr ieh kSm gohVy ivcoN pUxI kWqx dy brfbr hI hY. vYsy aijhy kSm iksy kWly kihry ivakqI, sYNtr jF grWup dy vs df rog hI nhIN sgoN smWucy pSjfbI BfeIcfry ƒ smUihk hSBlf mfrn dI rUrq hY. ipCly do sflF dy arsy dOrfn asIN ieh dyiKaf hY ik pSjfbI sfihq dI pYdfvfr qF bhuq ho rhI hY. kivqf, khfxI, nfvl afid vWzI pWDr Aupr ilKy jf rhy hn pr pSjfbI Bff dy buinafdI ivkfs aqy Koj vWl loVINdf iDafn nhIN idWqf jf irhf. ies kSm pRqI cyqnf aqy icSqn dI vI kfPI Gft hY. pSjfbI sSsQfvF, sBfvF aqy kfnPrSsF df islislf keI vfrI ieh BulyKf pf idSdf hY ik pSjfbI df ivkfs bhuq ho irhf hY. pr jykr sSsfr pWDr qy BffeI qrWkI dy sSdrB ivc ivcfr kIqf jfvy aqy pSjfbI jubfn dy BfeIcfry ivc vfpr rhIaF qbdIlIaF ƒ dyKIey qF pSjfbI Bff df BivK bhuq DSudlf nr afAuNdf hY.

nvIaF pIVHIaF ivc aSgryI aqy ihSdI dI vrqoN df ruJfn, purfxIaF pIVHIaF ivc QoVHI pRfpqI qy vWzy svY BulyKy df ruJfn, pSjfbI jubfnI BfeIcfry df afps ivc vSizaf hoxf kuJ aijhy qWQ hn ijnHF ƒ nraSdf nhIN kIqf jf skdf. pSjfbI jubfn dI qrWkI leI kSm kr rhy suihrd ivdvfnF ivc pyfvr vqIry dI vI kfPI Gft hY. aksr pSjfbI dy ivkfs nfl sSbSDq mWuidaF ƒ KfmhKfh isafsI rSgq dy idWqI jFdI hY.

loV hY ies Bff ƒ nvIaF sScfrk aqy qknIkI loVF anusfr Zfl ky vWD qoN vWD kfrgr sScfr sfDn bxfAux dI qF ik ies dI vrqoN ivc vfDf ho sky. jo Bff ijafdf vrqI jFdI hY Ausdy ivkfs dI guSjfie ijafdf vD jFdI hY. pSjfbI lok-Bff hox kfrn iek bhuq hI smrWQ aqy KUbsUrq Bff hY. qknIkI, akfdimk aqy pRfsink Bff dy qOr qy ies ivc ivksq hox dIaF bhuq sSBfvnfvF hn.

jykr pSjfbI Bff ƒ ies kSipAUtr Xug ivc shI idf ivc smyN isr ivksq kr leIey qF koeI vWzI gWl nhIN ik ieh sSsfr dIaF igxqI dIaF ivksq BffvF dy brfbr KVHI ho sky. ivvIkrn ijWQy Coty siBafcfrk aqy BffeI grWupF leI iek cuxoqI hY AuWQy ieh afpxI smrWQf idKfAux df iek mOkf vI hY. pSjfbI jbfnI BfeIcfry ƒ iek juWt ho ky ies mOky ƒ sFB lYxf cfhIdf hY. ieh kdy nhIN Bulxf cfhIdf hY ik Bff iek mnuWKI sfDn hY. iesƒ pIVHI dr pIVHI ivksq kIqf jFdf hY. ijs rUp ivc pSjfbI jubfn sfƒ sfzy puriKaF vloN bKI geI hY. iesdf rUp hor sSvfr ky, inKfr ky aqy ivkisq krky afAux vflIaF pIVHIaF ƒ sONpxf sfzI injI aqy smfijk iSmyvfrI hY.


ies lyK bwry Awpxy ivcwr  swnUM ilKo

darya1gif.gif (3186 bytes)

(c)copyright 1999-2003, 5abi