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AweInstweIn: iek dq-kQw dw XQwrQ
- fw kuldIp isG DIr

albert1.jpg (10786 bytes)AweInstweIn bIqI sdI dI dq-kQw hY[ mYƒ aus dw nW lYNidAW hI divdr siqAwrQI cyqy Awaux lgdw hY Aqy nwl hI inrml Arpn[ p`tI vwlw inrml Arpn[ siqAwrQI: iek dq-kQw vwlw inrml Arpn[ ijny iksy pjwbI jgq ivc divdr siqAwrQI nwl juVy hoey hn, aus qoN vI vDyry AweInstweIn dy ivicqr ivAkqIqv nwl juVy hoey hn[ aus bwry keI q`QW ƒ imQW qoN inKyVx inqwrx leI mYN jdoN ivdvwnW koloN pu`C-ig`C kIqI qW aunHW ivcoN keIAW dw auqr sI-AweInstweIn bwry pqw hI nhIN lgdw ik scweI ik`Qy mu`k jWdI hY qy imQ ik`QoN SurU ho jWdI hY[ Asl ivc AweInstweIn s`cmuc mhwn SKsIAq sI[ inrCl, bygrz, isAwxw, nykI dw puqlw, Amn dw pujwrI, swdgI dI mUrq, isrVHI ivigAwnI, scweI dw KojI, bypRvwh, infr, P`kV drvyS[ do mhW Xu`DW dI mwr, qknIkI qy ivigAwnk qr`kI nwl pYdw hoeI nvIN ssikRqI dI ckwcOND ny Awm AwdmI ƒ bIqI sdI ivc ienw mDoilAw ilqwiVAw qy jVHoN auKwiVAw sI ik lok iksy AYsI SKsIAq dI qwlwS krn l`gy ijs ƒ auh Awpxw swrw ipAwr qy Awdr dy skx[ msIhy vWg pUj skx[ Awpxy AwdrSW, aumgW dI pUrqI aus ivcoN hudI pCwxn[ Awpxy nwloN v`fw, v`Krw, ivicqr, P`kV drvyS, q`Q qy imQ dw imSrx[

4dms.jpg (8418 bytes)Acwnk ijvyN b`dlW ivcoN ibjlI ilSkdI hY, bIqI sdI dI lukweI ƒ AweInstweIn imilAw[ pRiqBw, pRwpqI, drvySI vwlI cmqkwrI SKsIAq[ lokW ny aus ƒ r`jvW mwx qy ipAwr id`qw[ aus nwl imQW juVx l`gIAW[ imQW jo Awm AwdmI dy iksy vI cmqkwrI SKsIAq pRqI su`cy ipAwr, Awdr, moh qy pUjw BwvI rv`eIey dw pRqIk hn[ ies ipAwrI SKsIAq bwry krn vwlIAW g`lW ienIAW izAwdw hn qy eynIAW ipAwrIAW ik smJ nhIN AwauNdw g`l ik`QoN SurU krIey[ kI d`sIey qy kI C`fIey[ aus dy swpyKqw isDWq dI g`l krIey qy dyKIey ik aus dw ivSyS swpyKqw isDWq kI hY qy ivAwpk swpyKqw isDWq kI hY[ ieh qW Awpxy Awp ivc Kwsy qknIkI qy aulJy hoeyo sklp hn[ iek vwr sr AwrQr AYifgtn ƒ iksy ny ikhw ''sr, AsIN suixAW hY ik AweInstweIn dI iQaUrI AwP rYlyitvtI ƒ pUrI qrHW kyvl iqn bdy hI smJ sky hn['' AYifgtn kuJ socdw hoieAw boilAw ''ieh qIjw kOx hY?''clo kuJ nw kuJ AsIN vI smJ smJw lvWgy, pr hwly nhIN[ hwly qW ieh nhIN inrxw hoieAw ik aus dI pdwrQ aUrjw smIkrx dI g`l CyVIey, smyN dy sklp dI jW cwr idSwvW (fweImYnSnz) dI[ nobl pRweIz nwl snmwny gey PotoielYkitRk pRBwv bwry aus dy km dI jW XnIPweIf iQaUrI au`qy aus duAwrw lwey iqn dhwikAW dI imhnq dI[ rUzvYlt ƒ ihtlr dy mukwbly leI bb iqAwr krn leI audm dyx vwly aus dy p`qr dI jW sswr Amn leI aus dy XqnW dI[ nIlz bohr nwl aus dy svwd dI jW plYNk, nrnst, EpnhweImr, AYifgtn, PrmI Awid nwl aus dy sbDW dI[ aus dI audwsI qy soc dy iCxW ivc aus dw swQ dyx vwlI vwieln dI jW aus dI P`kV drvySI dI[

AY iekbwl khW sy sIKI hY q ny Xy drvySI
ik crcy bwdSwhoN myN hYN qyrI byinAwzI ky[

kuJ vI hovy jy AweInstweIn nw hudw qW vIhvIN sdI dw BOiqk ivigAwn kuJ hor hI hudw[ ieh g`l qusIN vIhvIN sdI dy iksy vI hor ivigAwnI bwry nhIN kih skdy[ nw nIlz bohr bwry, nw rudrPorf bwry[ ieh mYN nhIN kihdw, vIhvIN sdI dy swry isDWqk BOiqk ivigAwnI kihdy hn[

qIh vrHy dI aumr q`k auh Awpxy smyN dy sB qoN v`fy BOiqk ivigAwnI vjoN sQwpq ho cu`kw sI[ inaUtn dy brwbr[ aus dw ieh ruqbw A`j vI brkrwr hY[ BOiqk ivigAwn aus ny C`ifAw iPr vI nhIN[ pUrI idRVHqw, isrVH qy lgn nwl auh 76 swl dI aumr ivc AwpxI mOq q`k BOiqk ivigAwn ƒ smripq irhw[ ieh v`KrI g`l hY ik aus dy hmsPr bhuqy ivigAwnI audoN vI qy hux vI socdy hn ik aus ny AwpxI aumr dw ieh ipClyrw A`D AYvyN imRgiqRSnw ivc hI brbwd kr id`qw[ auh BwvyN mUl BOiqk blW dy sWJy isDWq dI qlwS ivc AsPl irhw pr qrk, SWqI qy audwr ivigAwn dw auh msIhw bixAw[ XhUdIAW ny aus ƒ Awpxw rwStrpqI bxn dI pySkS vI kIqI - ivzmYn qoN bwd[ aus ny inmrqw nwl ieh pySkS r`d kr idqI "mYN ies dy Xog nhIN" kih ky[ "mYN qW ivigAwn dy Kyqr ivc ru`Jw hoieAw hW[" hr prkwr dy v`Kvwd, kOm pRsqI jW rwStrvwd qoN aus nUM nPrq sI[ ies leI jy auh nwzIvwd qoN B`ijAw qW XhUdI BweIcwry qoN vI iknwrwkSI kr igAw[

iPr aus dI nOkrI pYtYNt AwiPs ivc lgI[ pytYNt AwiPs ivc nvIAW kwFW, nvIAW jugqW dy pytYNt vwsqy AweIAW ArzIAW ƒ GoK ky aunHW ivcoN k`c s`c inKyV ky Xog pytYNtW leI m`uFlI Cwx-bIx AYlbrt dy izmy sI[ auh AwpxI iq`KI ivvhwirk sUJ nwl roz dw km kuJ hI smyN ivc mukw ky bwkI smyN ivc gixq qy BOiqk ivigAwn dIAW smIkrnW ivc gvwcw rihdw[ jdoN koeI AwauNdw qW auh Awpxy kwgz bypRvwhI nwl drwz ivc r`K iddw[ieDr km imilAw qy auDr aus dw myl jol AwpxI jmwqn imlvw mYirk nwl vDx l`gw[ aus ƒ imlvw SurU qoN cgI l`gdI sI qy imlvw ƒ auh vI[ pr ivAwh dy mwmly ivc auh A`gy vDx ƒ iqAwr nhIN sI[

milva-albert1.jpg (6820 bytes)iek idn AYlbrt ny imlvw ƒ ikhw, ''kI q kdy soicAw hY ik inaUtn ijnHW nqIijAW au`qy phuicAw hY, aunHW ivcoN kuJ glq vI ho skdy ny[ ijnHW g`lW ƒ isDWq kihdw hY, aunHW bwry auh sbUq nhIN iddw[ kuJ SkqIAW AijhIAW vI ho skdIAW hn ijnHW bwry inaUtn ƒ kuJ pqw nw hovy[''auh iknI dyr bolI igAw[ AwKr imlvw ny aus ƒ tokdy hoey ikhw-qusIN gixq jW BOiqk ivigAwn dy iksy isDWq jW nym ƒ auNj dw auNj mnx dI QW ikq pRq krn lgdy ho[ pu`Cx lgdy ho iej ikvyN ho skdw hY[ ijvyN iksy ivSy au`qy A`gy kdy iksy ny kuJ ikhw hI nw hovy[''iej hI iek idn aus imlvw ƒ is`Dw hI ivAwh bwry pu`C ilAw[ ''Swied mYN SwdI krW hI nw[ mYN smJdI hW ik mrdW vWg iesqrIAW ƒ vI kuJ Kws qy Tos krnw cwhIdw hY['' imlvw ny AwiKAw[ iPr qW q ies g`l nwl sihmq nhIN hovyNgI ik iesqrIAW dw jIvn rsoeI Gr, igrjw, b`cy qy pirvwr hY['' AYlbrt ny aus ƒ rqw ku CyVn dy ierwdy nwl ikhw[ ''iblkul nhIN, mYN smJdI hW ik mYN vI aunI cgI BOiqk ivigAwnI bx skdI hW, ijnw myrw koeI hor jmwqI['' auh bolI[ ''aunI cgI nhIN sgoN bhuiqAW nwloN cgI['' AYlbrt ny aus ƒ TMFw kIqw[ kihx ƒ qW auh kih igAw, pr idloN auh iehI cwhudw sI ik imlvw isrP aus leI jIey[ auh AwpxI hr dunIAwvI qy pirvwrk qy smwjk izmyvwrI aus au`qy su`t ky insicq ho sky[ spSt hI dohW dI socxI ivc Aqr sI[ ies dy bwvjUd jdoN aus ƒ sivs nwgirkqw qy nOkrI pRwpq ho geI 1903 ivc aus dI SwdI ho geI[ Swied AYlbrt ny imlvw ƒ ienw ku mnw ilAw ik BOiqk ivigAwn ivc Biv`K bxwaux dI QW hwl dI GVI auh ivAwh kr lvy[''

dPqr dy nyVy nvyN ivAwhy joVy ny auprlI mzly iek Cotw ijhw PlYt lY ilAw qy ilAw vI AYsI QW ijQoN brPW l`dy AYlps dIAW cotIAW dy dIdwr aunHW ƒ Aksr hI hudy[ QoVHy ijhy PrnIcr nwl hI aunHW grIbI dwAvy vwlw Awpxw Gr sjw ilAw[ imlvw Gr dI sBwl vI bVI suc`jqw nwl krdI, Kwxy vI bVy suAwd bxWdI qy BOiqk ivigAwn bwry AYlbrt nwl bVy cwA nwl g`lW krdI[ idno idn AYlbrt AwpxIAW izmyvwrIAW aus au`qy hor vI su`tdw igAw qy Awp AwpxI hI dunIAW ivc gvwcdw igAw[ ies dOrwn aus dy Gr byty AYlbrt hs dw jnm ho igAw qy imlvw hor izAwdw GrylU kmW ivc aulJ geI[qy AYlbrt AwpxI klpnw dI dunIAW ivc[ hr vyly socW ivc fu`by AYlbrt ny auqo-iV`qI cwr Koj p`qr ilKy jo aus ny AYnwlyn fYr iPzIk (AYnlz AwP iPizks) ivc Cpx leI Byjy[ cwry AsloN v`K v`K iviSAW au`qy[ ienHW ivcoN iqn BOiqk ivigAwn dy ieiqhws ivc sB qoN mh`qvpUrn sn[ pihlw-Aiq swdw[ PotoielYkitRk pRBwv dI kuAWtm ivAwiKAw[ iesy au`qy solW swl ip`CoN aus ƒ nobl pRweIz imilAw[ dUjw dRv ivc iKlry kxW dI dyKx ƒ auGV-duGVI qy glq-mlq jwpdI brwaUnIAn gqI[

emc2.jpg (19596 bytes)AweInstweIn ny d`isAw ik ieh brwaUnIAn gqI vI iek spSt stYitstIkl nym Anuswr hudI hY[ qIjw Koj p`qr ivSyS swpyKqw isDWq sI ijs ivc aus ny ACoply hI dyS, kwl qy pdwrQ ƒ iek mUl iekweI vjoN sgiTq kr id`qw[ gqImwn vsqW dI ielYktro fwienYimks ies dI ivSySqw dw AwDwr ieh hY ik ieh kyvl siQr Prymz AwP rYPrYNs q`k sImq hY qy jW iekswr swpyK vyg vwly Prymz q`k[ AweInstweIn ny d`isAw ik pRikRqk nym ieho ijhy swry Prymz ivc ieko qrHW lwgU hudy hn[ ies nwl hI pRkwS dy siQr vyg, ies au`qy swpyK vygW dy swDwrn sUqr nw lwgU hox dI scweI Aqy Aiq aucy vygW au`qy smyN, lMbweI qy puj (Bwr) ivc Awaux vwly pirvrqnW leI spSt ivAwiKAw swhmxy AweI[ Aiq au`cy vyg au`qy smyN dI cwl m`TI pYNdI hY[ vyg dI idSw ivc vyg vwlI SYA dI lMbweI GtdI hY[ auh sugVdI jWdI hY[ aus dw puj vDdw jWdw hY[ Aq pRkwS dy vyg au`qy smW ruk jWdw pRqIq hudw hY, puj AnMq pRqIq hudw hY qy lMbweI dI hoNd hI smwpq ho geI jwpdI hY[ cOQy p`qr ivc aus ny pdwrQ aUrjw smIkrx pyS kIqI jo 'eI' brwbr hY 'AYm' 'sI' sukyAr dy rUp ivc pRis`D hY[ eI, AYm, qy sI ivigAwnk skyq hn jo kRmvwr aurjw, pdwrQ puj (Bwr) qy pRkwS dy vyg ƒ pRgt krdy hn[

sivs PYfrl pytYNt AwiPs dw swDwrn klrk[ ieko vrHy ivc Aijhy cwr Koj p`qr[ AYnwlyn fYr iPzIk dw Ak 17 ijs ivc ieh iqn pypr Cpy A`j k`lH mulvwn AYNtIk hY ijs dI kwpI sYNkVy hI ikauN keI vwr hzwr fwlrW ivc ivk jWdI hY[ cOQw pypr ies jrnl dy Ak 18 iv`c CipAw[ auh iek dm ivigAwn jgq ivc Cw igAw[ polYNf dI krwko XnIvristI dy ivtko- vskI ny ikhw- iek nvW kwprnIks jm ipAw hY[ mYks plYNk ny Awp aus ƒ vDweI dI ic`TI briln qoN ilKI[ jrmnI dw aus smyN dw ivigAwnI mYks Pwn lwE Awp briln qoN aucycw aus ƒ imlx brn AwieAw Aqy ieh vyK ky hYrwn ho igAw ik ienHW pyprW dw lyKk kyvl C`bI vrHy dw AYlbrt hY[

1900 ivc ipqw dI mOq, 1902 ivc PYfrl AwiPs ivc klrk vjoN inXukqI, jnvrI 1903 ivc ivAwh qy 1905 ivc ivigAwn dy jgq ivc hlcl[ brn dy klwk twvr qoN koeI 100 ku gz dI ivQ au`qy aunHW vyilAW dy iek swDwrn Gr au`qy A`j iek plyt hY, ''ieh hY, auh QW ijQy 1903 qoN 1905 drimAwn AweInstweIn ny QIaUrI AwP rYlyitvtI dw Awpxw km nypry cwiVHAw['' ivAwh qoN lY ky ieh swrw smW kOx jwxdw sI aus ƒ[ Swied koeI vI nhIN[ nw aus ƒ, nw imlvw ƒ[ aunHW dI cu`p-cwp hoeI swdw ijhI SwdI dy do hI gvwh sn[ aulMipAw AkYfmI dy mwirs swlvIn qy kwnrf hYiQS[ koeI hnImUn nhIN[ iek lokl rYstorYNt ivc ivAwh dI KuSI ivc swDwrn Kwxw qy klwk twvr swhmxy Gr ivc vwpsI[ Gr AwieAw qW Awpxy Gr dI cwbI vI AweInstweIn ikqy Bu`l AwieAw sI[ AYsw Bul`kV sI auh[ pr auh Bul`kV sI qW aunHW g`lW bwry jo aus leI dUjy Xwd r`Kdy sn[ jW iPr aunHW g`lW bwry ijnHW ƒ auh mh`qv nhIN sI iddw[ Awpxy km bwry AwpxIAW gixq qy ivigAwn dy smIkrnW bwry aus ƒ kdy kuJ nhIN Bu`ldw[

emc1.jpg (10364 bytes)1905 dIAW Xu`g pltwaU GtnwvW dy iqn-cwr swl ip`CoN zUirk XnIvristI dy pRoPYsr kynr ny AYlbrt ƒ ikhw ik auh pytYNt AwiPs dI klrkI C`f ky zUirk XnIvristI ivc nOkrI leI ArzI dyvy[ imlvw nwl g`l kIqI qW auh J`t iqAwr ho geI[ XnIvristI ivc aus kdy pVHwieAw nhIN sI[ ies leI pihlW aus leI AzmwieSI BwSx iek prK vjoN AwXoijq kIqw igAw[ ies prK ivc AweInstweIn mwr Kw igAw[ aus Awp hI pRoPYsr kynr ƒ ikhw-qusIN ies post 'qy myry im`qr PrYfirk AYlfr ƒ r`K lE[ auh vI ies AswmI leI aumIdvwr hY[ auh myry qoN vDyry Xog hY[pr kuJ smyN bwAd pqw ligAw ik aus ƒ zUirk XnIvristI ivc pRoPYsr cux ilAw igAw hY[ AYlfr ny XnIvristI ƒ ilK ky id`qw sI ik ijs Ahudy leI AweInstweIn dI inXukqI dI sBwvnw hY, aus au`qy myry ijhy bdy ƒ inXukq krnw mUrKqw hY[ mYN AwpxI ArzI vwps lYNdw hW[ mYN spSt krnw cwhudw hW ik AweInstweIn dI qulnw BOiqk ivigAwn dy Kyqr ivc myrI Xogqw kuJ vI nhIN[qy iej 1909 ivc AweInstweIn izaUirk XnIvristI dw pRoPYsr bx igAw[ ieQy ieh d`sxw vI auicq lgdw hY ik 1905 ivc hI 'ey nIaU fYPInISn AwP mwlIkulr fweImYnSnz' dw iek Koj p`qr zUirk XnIvristI ƒ pyS krn nwl aus ƒ fwktryt dI ifgrI vI iml geI sI[

space1.jpg (15273 bytes)1902 qoN 1909 q`k sq swl AweInstweIn pytYNt AwiPs ivc irhw[ do vrHy qW AsloN AwrzI[ Srq ieh sI ik p`kw hox 'qy qnKwh ivc Xog vwDw kIqw jwvygw[ sqbr 1904 ivc aus ƒ p`kw kIqw igAw qy qnKwh 3500 PrWk qoN vDw ky 3900 PrWk kr id`qI geI[ r`iKAw aus ƒ Pyr vI klws QrI hI igAw[ 1906 ivc aus ƒ hwier klws dy ky 600 PrWk hor vDwey gey-ieh kih ky ik aus ny fwktryt kr leI hY[ fwktryt jW hor Koj p`qrW vwsqy AYlbrt dI pytYNt AwiPs dI swDwrn ijhI lwiebryrI q`k hI phuc sI[ XnIvristI pRoPYsrW q`k aus dI nw phuc sI qy nw aunHW nwl svwd[ Awpxy smyN dy BOiqk ivigAwnIAW qy aunHW dIAW KojW q`k aus dI koeI phuc nhIN sI[ ies swry kuJ dy bwvjUd aus dI pRwpqI ivl`Kx sI[ auh 30 swl dI aumr ivc ivSv pRis`DI pRwpq kr igAw sI qy XnIvristI ivc pRoPYsr vI bx igAw sI[ aus dI ivicqr khwxI ieQy mu`k nhIN geI[ ieh qW isrP iek SurUAwq sI[ ies khwxI dI AglI vwrqw kdy Pyr shI[

ivigAwnI pwTkW leI svwl:
lg pg do hzwr swl pihlW Bwrq ivc bu`Dm`q dI ivcwrDwrw nwl sbMD r`Kx vwly socvwnW ny qrk Swsqr dy KyqR ivc do isDWq pyS kIqy sn: SunXvwd Aqy kCxvwd[ ADuink ivigAwnk idRStIkox qoN ienHW isDwqW nUM AweInstweIn dy isDwqW nwl imldy juldy d`isAw jWdw hY[ kI swfy, BOiqk ivigAwn dy mwihr pwTk ies bwry hor jwxkwrI dy skdy hn?  -------------- sMpwdk

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ies lyK bwry Awpxy ivcwr  swnUM ilKo

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