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ies ivSyS lyK dw mksd isrP ivcwr sWJy krnw hY[5abi.com Adwry dw sihmq hooxw koeI zrUrI nhI[

do hzwr iqn dy nobl purskwr ivjyqw
- pRo nv sgIq isG

nobl purskwr dy jnmdwqw AlPrY`f brnhwrf nobl dw jnm svIfn iv`c 1833 iv`c hoieAw sI Aqy idhWq 1896 iv`c[ auh bhuq v`fw ivigAwnI sI[ fwienwmweIt XwnI gn pwaUfr dI Koj aus ny hI kIqI sI[ fwienwmweIt ny mnu`K dy h`Q iv`c iek bhuq v`fI SkqI sONp id`qI sI[ ivkws dI vI Aqy nv-inrmwx dI vI[ AlPrY`f ny bhuq v`fI rkm nwl nobl purskwr PwaUNfySn dI sQwpnw kIqI, ijs nUM ivhwrk rUp dyx iv`c aus dy idhWq ip`CoN cwr vrHy l`g gey[ nobl ienwm 1901 qoN id`qy jwxy SurU hoey, XwnI vIhvIN sdI dy AwrB qoN[

AlPrY`f ny pj purskwrW dw pRbD kIqw sI[ iPizks, kYimsts, fwktrI, swihq Aqy SWqI leI[ sn 1905 q`k nwrvy vI svIfn dw hI iek rwj sI[ sn 1905 iv`c svIfn ny ibnW iksy JgVy qoN nwrvy nUM Awzwd kr id`qw Aqy im`qrqw dy is`ty vjoN ivSv SWqI' dw purskwr dyx dw km nwrvy dI mwnqw pRwpq pwrlImYNt nUM sONipAw igAw[ Awzwd nwrvy iehdy leI ieCu`k sI[ sn 1968 iv`c svIfn dy sB qoN v`fy bYNk (rISy bYNk) ny AwpxI qIjI SqwbdI dy jSn iv`c nobl purskwr PwaUNfySn' nUM ienw Dn iek`Tw dy id`qw, ijs dy ivAwj nwl hr swl ArQ Swsqr ivigAwn' leI aunI hI rkm ivSv dy iksy pRmu`K ArQ-SwsqrI nUM id`qI jw sky[ bYNk nUM hux ies sbD iv`c koeI AiDkwr nhIN hY[ ieh ienwm 1968 qoN dyxw SurU hoieAw hY[

nobl ienwm hr swl AlPrY`f nobl dy jnm idn 10 dsbr 'qy id`qy jWdy hn[ ijvyN ik aupr d`isAw igAw hY ik SWqI purskwr dw PYslw nwrvy dI pwrlImYNt dy h`Q iv`c hY, jo iek ivSyS kmyxI bxw ky purskwr ivjYqw dI cox krdI hY[ bwkI pj purskwrW iv`coN iPizks Aqy kYimstrI dy purskwrW dw PYslw svIifS AkwdmI AwP swies', fwktrI dw stwkhom dI kYrolweIn mYfIkl iestIicaUt', ArQ-Swsqr dw PwaUNfySn v`loN inXukq iek borf Aqy swihq leI purskwr ivjyqw dw suJwA stwkhom dI swihq-AkwfmI iddI hY[ swl 2003 dy nobl jyqAW bwry sKyp vyrvw ies qrHW hY:

swihq: swihq dw nobl ienwm d`Kx APrIkw dy pRis`D nwvlkwr jwn mYksvYl koiezI nUM id`qw igAw hY[ koiezI dw jnm 1940 iv`c kyptwaUn ivKy hoieAw[ koiezI ny tYksws ivKy BwSw ivigAwn dw AiDAYn krn qoN pihlW Awpxw kYrIAr Xky iv`c iek kipaUtr pRogRwmr' dy rUp iv`c SurU kIqw sI[ auh Aijhw pihlw lyKk hY ijs ny sKq imhnq, iekwgrqw, ivSvws Aqy smrpx duAwrw do vyr bu`kr pRweIz ij`iqAw hY[ pihlI vwr 1983 iv`c lweIP AYNf tweImz AwP mweIkl ky' leI Aqy dUjI vwr 1999 iv`c ifsgRys' leI auh nUM ieh ienwm imilAw sI[ nobl ienwm dy Aqrgq auh nUM 13 l`K fwlr dI rwSI pRwpq hoeI hY[ auh ny Awpxy nwvlW iv`c d`Kx APrIkw dI durdSw dw vrxn kIqw hY[ A`T nwvlW Aqy Axigxq lyKW dw lyKk koiezI d`Kx APrIkI lyKkW iv`coN sRImqI nYifn gorfImr (1991 dI nobl jyq) ip`CoN dUjw Aijhw lyKk hY, ijs nUM ivSv-swihq dw ieh auqikRSt purskwr imilAw hY[

SWqI: eIrwnI mnu`KI AiDkwrW Aqy lokqqr iv`c srgrm sRImqI SIrIn iebwdI nUM 2003 dy nobl SWqI ienwm nwl snmwnq kIqw igAw hY[ nobl purskwr dy 102 swlw ieiqhws iv`c ieh pihlw mOkw hY, jdoN iksy musilm AOrq nUM ies srvau`c ienwm dy Xog smiJAw igAw hY[

ik`qy vjoN vkIl 56 swlw SIrIn eIrwn iv`c j`j bxn vwlI pihlI AOrq hY[ iebwdI nUM ieh ienwm eIrwn Aqy ivSv dy hor keI dySW iv`c AOrqW Aqy b`icAW dy AiDkwrW dw smrQn krn leI id`qw igAw hY[ nwrvy dI nobl kmytI dy GoSxw p`qr iv`c ikhw hY ik iebwdI ny Awpxy dyS Aqy ies dI sImw qoN bwhr spSt qOr 'qy idRVHqw nwl AwpxI g`l khI hY[ ies ienwm dy Aqrgq iebwdI nUM 13 l`K AmrIkI fwlr pRdwn kIqy gey hn[

kYimstrI: AmrIkI ivigAwnIAW pItr AYgry Aqy rwfirk mYkiknn nUM sWJy qOr 'qy rswiex ivigAn dw nobl ienwm id`qw igAw hY[ aunHW dI cox koiSkw-iJ`lI Kyqr iv`c aunHW dy Xogdwn leI kIqI geI hY[ aunHW dI ies Koj nwl gurdy, idl, mwspySIAW Aqy nwVI dy rogW dy ielwj iv`c mdd imlygI[ pItr qy rwfirk ny sY`lW dI kwrjpRxwlI dy AwDwrBUq isDWq iv`c Awpxw Xogdwn id`qw hY[ aunHW ny mwlIikaUlr mSInW dy AdBu`q pirvwr nwl swfI pihcwx krvweI hY[ ienHW dIAW KojW qoN ieh pqw l`igAw hY ik pwxI Aqy nmr ikvyN srIr dIAW koiSkwrW dy Adr jWdy hn[ audwhrx leI aunHW ny ieh vI drswieAw ik ikvyN ijgr pihlW ipSwb qoN pwxI hwsl krdw hY Aqy iks qrHW ibjleI qrgW PYlwE krdIAW hn[ ienHW dohW ivigAwnIAW nUM 10 l`K kRonr (13 l`K AmrIkI fwlr) dI ienwmI rkm v`fI geI hY[

54 swlw AYgry, jwn hwpiknz XnIvristI skl AwP mYfIsn, bwltImor (myrIlYNf) ivKy Aqy 47 swlw mYkiknn, inaU Xwrk dI hwvrf ihaUijz mYfIkl iestIicaUt AwP rwkPYlr XnIvristI ivKy kwrjSIl hn[

iPizks: BOiqk-ivigAwn leI ies swl dw nobl ienwm iqn ivigAwnIAW nUM id`qw igAw hY[ ieh hn : rUs dy vweItlI ignzbrg Aqy AlYksI Aibrkosov Aqy ibRtyn dy AYtonI jy lYgY`t[ ienHW swry ivigAwnIAW nUM BOiqkI dy Aqrgq kuAWtm, Aiqcwilkqw Aqy au`c-qrlqw sbDI aunHW dI Koj leI ieh purskwr id`qw igAw hY[ ienHW ivigAwnIAW nUM purskwr dy Aqrgq id`qI jwx vwlI 103 l`K AmrIkI fwlrW dI rkm brwbr vf id`qI geI hY[

ieknwimks: AmrIkI ArQ-SwsqrI rwbrt AYP AYNjl Aqy ibRtyn dy klweIv fblXjy gRYNgr nUM ieh ienwm sWJy qOr 'qy id`qw igAw hY[ AwrQk smW lVI' dy ivSlySx dy aunHW dy kwrj leI ieh ienwm id`qw igAw hY[ dohW dI Koj ny ArQ-SwsqrIAW nUM inrDwirq smyN dOrwn AwriQk ivkws, ivAwj drW jW kImqW vrgy sUckW dy ivSlySx dIAW nvIAW ivDIAW pyS kIqIAW hn[ 60 swlw AYNjl inaU Xwrk XnIvristI ivKy Aqy 69 swlw gRYNgr syn ifAwgo XnIvristI ivKy AiDAwpn dw kwrj inBwA rhy hn[

mYfIsn: fwktrI dw nobl purskwr AmrIkI ivigAwnI fw pwl sIloqyrbr Aqy ibRtyn dy sr pItr mYtsPIlf nUM aunHW dIAW KojW (cubkI pRqIDunI) leI sWJy qOr 'qy id`qw igAw hY[ ienHW ivigAwnIAW ny mYgnYitk rYzonYNs iemyijg' (AYmAwrAweI) nwmk iek AijhI qknIk ivkisq kIqI hY, ijs iv`c mnu`K dy Adrly AgW dy iqn-ivmwv (QRI fwiemYnSnl) ic`qr pRwpq ho skxgy[ ies nwl AprySn qoN pihlW srIr dy AdrUnI BwgW dI jwxkwrI lYx dI idSw iv`c G`t drd hovygw Aqy izAwdw jwxkwrI iml skygI[

fw loqyrbr XnIvristI AwP ie`lInoies ivKy Aqy sr mYnsPIlf ieglYNf dI XnIvristI AwP noitgm ivKy kwrjSIl hn[ fw loqyrbr (iPzIkl kYimst) ny 1973 iv`c ies qknIk bwry stonI bruk dI styt XnIvristI AwP inaU Xwrk ivKy Awpxw inrxYjnk prcw pyS kIqw sI[ mYnsPIlf ny iesy sklp nUM pYRktIkl XQwrQ vjoN jwmw pihnwieAw sI[

ieauN 2003 dy nobl jyqAW iv`c 4 AmrIkI, 3 brqwnvI, 2 rUsI Aqy 1-1 d`Kx APrIkI Aqy ierwnI SKsIAqW smyq ku`l 11 ivAkqI ivBUiSq hoey hn[

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